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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ir.fy.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/13614


    Title: Development of a multi-pathway probabilistic health risk assessment model for swimmers exposed to chloroform in indoor swimming pools
    Authors: Chen,Ming-Jen;Lin, Ching-Ho;Duh,Jing-Min;Chou,Wen-Shiuan;Hsu, Hui-Tsung
    Contributors: 輔英科技大學 環境工程與科學系
    Keywords: Chloroform;Multi-pathway risk assessment;Boundary layer;Indoor swimming pool
    Date: 2010-10-01
    Issue Date: 2011-07-28 15:55:28 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: For swimmers, exposure to chloroform, a probable carcinogen, in indoor swimming pools can be through different pathways such as ingestion, dermal absorption, inhalation during swimming, and inhalation during resting. In order to evaluate health risk results from excessive exposure to chloroform, concentrations of chloroform in pool water were first collected and analyzed. Then, a two-layer model is used, which is capable of estimating the concentrations of chloroform in the boundary layer adjacent to the water surface and the concentrations of chloroform in indoor swimming pool air. The use of stratification model is important for estimating the risks for swimmers since they are exposed to these kinds of situations while performing swimming and resting in indoor swimming pools environment. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was then estimated using the multi-pathway exposure model. The results showed that the 95th percentile of ILCRs calculated for male and female swimmers were 2.80 × 10?4 and 2.47 × 10?4, respectively. The major exposure routes were found to be inhalation during swimming which contributes to more than 99% of the total health risk. Our study suggested that to protect swimmers from excessive exposure to chloroform, alternative methods or processes of disinfection should be considered for swimming pool managers.
    Relation: Journal of Hazardous Materials 185(4),1037-1044
    Appears in Collections:[環境工程與科學系] 期刊論文

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