Background: Without intervention, renal function deteriorates in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Aim: This pilot study aimed to develop a self-management education program based on self-regulation theory and to evaluate its effects on self-efficacy, self-management behavior, and CKD progression among patients with early-stage CKD. Methods: n this single-group, pretest–posttest, repeated-measures, longitudinal study, participants underwent baseline pretesting (T0) and posttesting at 3 (T1), 6 (T2), and 12 (T3) months after a 5-week group-session self-management program. Results: Self-efficacy increased significantly at T2 (χ2 = 8.97, p = .02) and T3 (χ2 = 10.71, p = .01) compared with T0, but self-management behavior did not. A marginally significant decrease in serum creatinine levels was observed from T0 to T3 (χ2 = 6.29, p = .07) but estimated glomerular filtration rates remained stable throughout the 12-month period. Conclusions: The results of this empirical study suggest that the theory-based intervention is feasible and has potential efficacy in retarding CKD progression.