Nanometric-sized barium titanate powders were prepared by using titanium isopropoxid as the raw material and acetylacetone as a chelating agent, in a strong alkaline solution (pH > 13) through the sol-precipitation method. The preparatory variables affect the extent of cross-linking in the structure, change the mode of condensation of the gels, and even control the particle size of the powder. The reaction rate of forming powder, at a higher temperature such as 100°C and more water content (the molar ratio of water to titanium isopropoxide is 25) or fewer acetylacetone (the molar ratio of acetylacetone to titanium isopropoxide is 1), is rapid and the particle size formed is finer at 60–80 nm. On the contrary, that of forming powder, at lower temperature (40°C) and less water content (molar ratio of water/titanium isopropoxide = 5) or higher acetylacetone (acetylacetone/titanium isopropoxide = 7), is slow and the particle size of the powder is larger. The optimal preparatory conditions were obtained by using the experimental statistical method; as a result, nanometric-sized BaTiO3 powder with an average particle size of about 50 nm was prepared.
Journal of Electronic Materials,Volume 36, Number 3, p.245-252