This review article deals with recent development in the analyses of proteins and DNA by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microchip CE (MCE) using polymer solutions. Polymer solutions are commonly prepared from linear polymers such as linear polyacrylamide, poly(ethylene oxide), hydroxyethyl cellulose, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone), which possess the advantages of low fluorescence background, self-coating capability, and high sieving ability. We discuss the key parameters that affect the separation efficiency, including electroosmotic flow, chemical and physical properties of polymers, background electrolytes, and additives. The advantages and disadvantages of CE and MCE in conjunction with laser-induced fluorescence using polymer solutions for the analyses of DNA and proteins in biological fluids are highlighted. Several recently developed CE approaches such as gradient techniques and sample stacking for efficient and sensitive analyses of DNA and proteins are emphasized. We also address the trend of using nanomaterials for bioanalysis in CE and MCE.